Anthropology 234   
Dr. Judkins
Fall 2003 




 SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY


The contributions of British Social Anthropology are firmly and liberally, if with all too little recognition, woven into the very fabric of American Cultural Anthropology.  Indeed the central method of Anthropology, i.e., “ethnography,” reached the culmination of its development in  British Social Anthropology - even though it was invented here in the U.S., actually right here in the Genesee Valley of western New York.  Understanding and appreciating the subsequent emergence of Social Anthropology in Britain, the development and elaboration of its pre-eminent paradigm of fieldwork and social systems analysis there, and its ultimate and significant impact throughout the anthropologically aware world is the central purpose of this course.  

Understanding British Social Anthropology as a unique, historical school is particularly important for American Anthropology students.  Since at least the mid-1950s there has been an ever increasing, ever more complete reintegration of British with American styles of Anthropology (“Social/Cultural Anthropology”).  This has resulted in making the unique orientations and contributions of a distinct British Social Anthropology ever less obvious, though actually of increased importance, as “Social/Cultural” Anthropology increases its popularity in the curriculum of departments of Anthropology throughout North America.


COURSE OBJECTIVES:

- The study of the practice and accomplishments of British Social Anthropology during the century and a half, ca.1850 - ca. 2000, with attention to its unique and productive focus on the study of human communities and behavior through an intensive and determined focus on social organization and social systems as entities in themselves worthy and demanding of study.


LEARNING OUTCOMES:

- Student mastery of the data of the topic will be demonstrated in examinations, on the required term paper, and confirmed in defense of that paper before the class as well as in a cumulative and substantial Final Examination.
- Student proficiency regarding the development of Social Anthropology is demonstrated through exams.
- Students acquisition of knowledge of the practice of the field of British Social Anthropology will be demonstrated both on examinations and by means of a ten-twelve page term paper.



LEVEL:

 This is not an introductory level course.  The student is required to have already successfully completed Anth 100 or Anth 101.  Having taken other cultural anthropology or area studies courses, or their equivalent, as well is presumed and will adequately prepare one for this course.  


GRADING:

Mid-term, Final and Research Paper (10-12 pages; presented in class): each = 1/3 of the grade
Tests are essay format and the Final is cumulative.
Class contribution can significantly affect your final grade, easily a half grade in either direction.
You are expected to always be current on reading assignments, be present, and to be thoughtfully prepared for class discussions in every meeting.
The paper is to be all original research
    Plagiarism is not tolerated and will result in failing the course.
    Please use either American Anthropologist or Current Anthropology as your style guide.
    Milne Library and course texts are to be your major research resources.
    Internet and online resources must be used judiciously and may not constitute more than
        30%-35% of your citations without specific permission of the instructor.
The classroom presentation of the research paper will take the form of a fifteen minute summary
presentation, followed by your leading a class discussion/exercise reviewing and contextualizing the significance of your subject.  You will need to be able to mount a
    competent defense of your paper, its sources, thesis and methodology.
       

TEXTS:

Fredrik Barth, Political Leadership Among Swat Pathans.  London School of Economics, Monographs on Social Anthropology, No19.  Athlone
Paul Bohannan, Justice and Judgment Among the Tiv.  Waveland
Edmund Leach, Political Systems of Highland Burma.  London School of Economics,
    Monographs on Social Anthropology, No 44.  Athlone
A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, Structure and Function in Primitive Society.  Free Press
George W. Stocking, After Tylor: British Social Anthropology 1888-1951.  U of Wisconsin
Victor W. Turner, The Ritual Process.  Aldine de Gruyter


OFFICE HOURS:

Sturges 15B: T/Th 12:35-2:00 and 3:15-4:00PM; Wednesdays 11:00-2:00 (appointment only)
Phone: 245-5433      e-mail: judkins@geneseo.edu
COURSE PROGRAM


BACKGROUND    Weeks 1 & 2

European Intellectual History and Concepts of Structure, Process, and Relationship
    Debt to Ancient, Medieval and Renaissance Thought and Writing:
        Reading selections, history of Anthropology:
            - A. O . Lovejoy, The Great Chain of Being, chapt 1 (selections)
            - F. W. Voget, A History of Ethnology, chapts. 1 and 2
            - M. Harris, The Rise of Anthropological Theory, chapt. 2
            - R. Darnell, Readings in the History of Anthropology, chapt. 5, “The
                Renaissance Foundations of Anthropology,” John Howland Rowe
    Unity of Natural & Social Thought/Patterns of Anthropological Thinking & Worldview:
            - Loren Eiseley, “An Evolutionist Looks at Modern Man”
    European “Culture History” traditions: E. B. Tylor and consolidation of the pattern
            - R. H. Lowie, The History of Ethnological Theory, chapt 7, “E. B. Tylor”
- G. Stocking, Jr., After Tylor: British Social Anthropology 1888-1951, Prologue


ETHNOLOGY, ETHNOGRAPHY & THE FOUNDATIONS OF FUNCTIONALIST THOUGHT
    Week 3
    19th Century French Functionalist Thought:
        Comte; Fustel de Coulanges, The Ancient City, (Introduction; Book I - selections)
        Emile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, (selections)
19th Century British and American “Stages of Evolution:” rise and fall; impact on the development of modern perspectives of Anthropology; separation of Social
        Anthropology in England; critical overview:
            - G. Lienhardt, Social Anthropology, chapt 1 (special emphasis pp. 20-32)



INITIAL EMERGENCE OF THE SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL PATTERN    Week 4

Lewis Henry Morgan, League of the Iroquois, Book II “The Spirit of the League”
    Ethnography Invented; collegial role of Ely S. Parker and the infusion of Native
        American (Seneca-Iroquois) categories, thought and associations;
            “whole systems” thinking and the study of social institutions

Lewis Henry Morgan, Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family,
        Part I, chapt II, “General Observations upon Systems of Relationships”
    Description vs. Classification; Social Structure


Sir Henry Sumner Maine, Ancient Law, (Introduction, chapts 1 & 2; 5 & 6)
    Comparative Legal Systems: England and India
    Universitas juris and the Concept of Social Corporation
    Fictive Kinship and the Concepts of Social Adaptation and Perpetuity


SIR JAMES FRAZER    Week 4 (concluded)

    Social Anthropology in Frazer
        - Frazer, The Golden Bough, chapt 3, “Sympathetic Magic”
        - G. Stocking, Jr., After Tylor: Brit. Social Anthropology 1888-1951, chapt 4

    Impact of The Golden Bough and the concept of “divine kingship”
        - M. Wilson, “Divine Kings and the ‘Breath of Men’,” Frazer Lecture


FIELDWORK: OBSERVATIONS & GATHERING THE MATERIALS    Week 5

Heritage of the Age of Exploration: Capt. Cook to Alfred Russel Wallace
        - A. R. Wallace. The Malay Archipelago, chapt 11, “Lombok - Manners and
            Customs” [NB: compare carefully with the quote from Darwin’s account
            of his observations on the people of Tierra del Fuego, in Lienhardt]
        - [American comparisons: H. R. Schoolcraft and John Wesley Powell]

Aldof Bastian: Elementary Folk Ideas & the Psychic Unity of Mankind
        - R. H. Lowie. The History of Ethnological Theory, chapt 4 “Adolf Bastian”

WHR Rivers & A. C. Haddon: the Torres Straits Expedition; Spencer & Gillen
        - G. Stocking, Jr., After Tylor: Brit. Social Anthropology 1888-1951, chapts 3 & 5


BRITISH SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY: THE PARADIGM FORMULATED    Weeks 6 & 7

Contributions of Bronislaw Malinowski - The Trobriand Islanders
    Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922): the extended field study method

Contributions of A. R. Radcliffe-Brown - The Andamanese
    Andaman Islanders (1922); the “loss of inexplicability” re. alien behaviors
        - the (unheralded) entrance of Durkheimian functionalist sociological
            insights into Anglophone anthropology
    Theoretical Contributions: Structure & Function; Natural Laws of Society
        - Radcliffe-Brown, Structure and Function in Primitive Society.
            Introduction; chapts 1, 4, 5, 7-11

Mid-term Exam: October 9
BRITISH SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY: CLASSIC PARADIGM EXEMPLIFIED    Weeks 8 & 9

EE Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer (1940); Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande (1937)
    Ethnography of the Azande and the Nuer
    Theoretical Contributions: Kinship, Politics, and Religion

        Political and legal systems analysis in Social Anthropology:
            - F. Barth, Political Leadership Among Swat Pathans
- P. Bohannan, Justice and Judgment Among the Tiv

Meyer Fortes, The Web of Kinship Among the Tallensi (1949)
    Ethnography of the Tallensi
    Theoretical Contributions: Political Anthropology


Raymond Firth, Malay Fishermen, their Peasant Economy (1946); We, the Tikopia (1936)
    Ethnography in the Pacific and SE Asia
    Theoretical Contributions: Economic Anthropology


BRITISH SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY: FULFILMENT OF THE CLASSIC PARADIGM
    Weeks 10 & 11

A Sampling of Mid- and Late-Twentieth Century British Social Anthropolgy
    Africa: Monica Wilson, Lucy Mair, Paul & Laura Bohannan, Max Gluckman
    Asia and the Indo-Pacific: Fredrik Barth, Edmund R Leach, Rodney Needham,
        S. N. Srinivas, Maurice Freeman, and SJ Tambiah


BRITISH SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY: EXTENDING & PONDERING THE PARADIGM
    Weeks 12 & 13

        Social Process, Social Structure; Ritual
            - Edmund R. Leach, Political Systems of Highland Burma
        Myth, Ritual and Symbol; Processual Analysis
            - Victor W. Turner, The Ritual Process
        General and Theory; Persistent Themes: Magic & Taboo
            - Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger



SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY NOW: WHAT THE TASK & WHITHER THE PARADIGM?
    Week 14

Boasian-American Cultural Anthropological Comparison
Clifford Geertz: “Thick Description,” the Ethnography of Nations, and British
    Social Anthropology
Structuralism, Cognative Anthropology, Post-Modernism and Other Directions
Enduring Contributions & Strengths of British Social Anthropology


SUMMARY: THEORETICAL “KEY CONCEPTS” OF THE FIRST ORDER *

The Comparative Method
The Genealogical Method (W. H. R. Rivers)
Emile Durkheim and French Functionalism
Social Function (systems analysis/homeostasis)
Social System (systems analysis/homeostasis)
Descent Systems/Social Corporation/Unilineal Descent Groups
Unity of the Lineage Group/Unity of the Sibling Group (A. R. Radcliffe-Brown)
Rites de passage (Arnold van Gennep)
Prestation (Marcel Mauss)
Liminality (Victor W. Turner)


* Social Anthropology...has been inspired by certain general ideas, subtly derived from the early French sociologists, which have had a singular theoretical influence...they are analytical notions such as ‘transition’, ‘polarity’ (opposition), ‘exchange’, ‘solidarity’, ‘total’, ‘structure’, ‘classification’.  Now these are not theories but highly general concepts; they are vague, they state nothing.  At first sight there is nothing to be done with them...Indeed, their significance is only apprehended after arduous application to the task of understanding social phenomena; the less on knows about human society and collective representations the less they appear to mean.  Yet they have proved to possess a great and perennial analytical value, such that it may be claimed that it is they which are essentially [that which E. E. Evans-Pritchard referred to as] the ‘theoretical capital’ of social anthropology.  
Rodney Needham.  “Introduction,” to his English translation
            of Durkheim and Mauss’ essay, Primitive Classification.



STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER & PROJECT PRESENTATIONS    Week 15




Final Exam: December 16
REFERENCE BIBLIOGRAPHY


I. GENERAL WORKS IN THE HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SCIENCE

Darnell, Regna. Readings in the History of Anthropology. Harper & Row. New York. 1974
Eiseley, Loren. Darwin’s Century. Doubleday. New York. 1958
Harris, Marvin. The Rise of Anthropological Theory. Rowman & Littlefield. Lanham, MD. 2001
Kuper, Adam. Anthropology and Anthropologists: The Modern British School. Routledge.1996
Lowie, Robert H. History of Ethnological Theory. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York. 1937
Lovejoy, Arthur O. The Great Chain of Being. Harvard U Press. Cambridge. 1936
Stocking, George W., Jr. After Tylor: British Social Anthropology 1888-1951. U of Wisconsin.
    Madison. 1995
Voget, Fred W. A History of Ethnology. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. New York. 1975

Annual Review of Anthropology

Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1930-1935)
International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1968)
International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2001)


II. CLASSICS: FOUNDATIONAL WORKS

de Coulanges, Fustel. The Ancient City. Lee and Shepard. Boston. 1873
Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Free Press. New York. 1995
_________. Rules of Sociological Method. Free Press. New York. 1982
Frazer, Sir James G. The Golden Bough (abridged edition). Macmillan and Co. London. 1922
Maine, Sir Henry Sumner. Ancient Law. John Murray. London. 1861
Morgan, Lewis Henry. League of the Iroquois. Sage & Brother. Rochester. 1851
__________. Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family. Smithsonian
    Contributions to Knowledge. 1871


III. TEXT, OVERVIEWS AND SERIES TITLES IN BRITISH SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and the Commonwealth. (publications series)
Bohannan, Paul. Social Anthropology. International Thompson Publishing. 1963
Cambridge Papers in Social Anthropology. Cambridge U Press. Cambridge (publications series)
Firth, Sir Raymond. Elements of Social Organization. Greenwood Press. Westport, CT. 1981
Freedman, Maurice (ed).  Social Organization. Aldine. Chicago. 1967
Leach, Edmund. Social Anthropology. Oxford U Press. New York. 1982
Lewis, I. M. Social Anthropology in Perspective. Cambridge U Press. Cambridge. 1994
Lienhardt, Godfrey. Social Anthropology. Oxford U Press. New York. 1988
Mair, Lucy. Introduction to Social Anthropology. Oxford U Press. New York. 1989
IV. STANDARD WORKS OF BRITISH SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Barth, Fredrik. Political Leadership among Swat Pathans. LSE/Athlone. London. 1965
Bohannan, Paul. Justice and Judgement Among the Tiv. Waveland. Prospect Heights, IL. 989
__________. Tiv Economy. Northwestern U Press. Evanston, IL. 1968
Douglas, Mary. Natural Symbols. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London. 1996
__________. Purity and Danger. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London. 2002
Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Kinship and Marriage Among the Nuer. Oxford UP. New York. 1961
__________. The Nuer. Oxford U Press. New York.1968
__________. Nuer Religion. Oxford U Press. New York. 1970
__________. Theories of Primitive Religion. Oxford U Press. New York. 1965
__________. Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. Oxford UP. New York. 1992
Firth, Sir Raymond. Malay Fishermen. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London. 2003
__________. We the Tikopia. Stanford U Press. Stanford. 1893
Forde, Daryll (ed.). African Worlds. Lit Verlag. London. 1999
Fortes, Meyer. The Dynamics of Clanship Among the Tallensi. Humanities. New York. 1969
__________. The Web of Kinship Among the Tallensi. Humanities. New York. 1969
__________ and Evans-Pritchard, E. E. African Political Systems. Oxford U Press. 1964
Freedman, Maurice. Chinese Lineage and Society. Brill. Boston. 1971
__________. Family and Kinship in Chinese Society. Stanford U Press. Stanford. 1970
__________. Lineage Organization in Southeastern China. LSE/Athlone. London. 1970
Gluckman, Max. Custom and Conflict in Africa. Basil Blackwell. Oxford. 1965
__________. Politics, Law and Ritual in Tribal Society. Aldine. Chicago. 1965
Goody, Jack (ed.). The Developmental Cycle in Domestic Groups. Cambridge U Press.
    Cambridge. 1962
Gullick, J. M. Indigenous Political Systems of Western Malaya. LSE/Athlone. London. 1965
Kenyatta, Jomo. Facing Mt. Kenya. Vintage Books. New York. 1965
Leach, Edmund. Political Systems of Highland Burma. LSE/Athlone. London. 1977
__________. Rethinking Anthropology. LSE/Athlone. London. 1966
Lienhardt, Godfrey. Divinity and Experience. Oxford U Press. New York. 1985
Mair, Lucy. African Kingdoms. Oxford U Press. New York. 1985
Malinowski, Bronislaw. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. E. P. Dutton. New York. 1961
__________. Magic, Science and Religion. Waveland Press. Prospect Heights, IL. 1992
Middleton, John and Tait, David (eds.). Tribes without Rulers. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London.1970
Nadel, S. F. A Black Byzantium. Oxford U Press. New York. 1942
__________. Theories of Social Structure. MacMillan Publishing. 1964
Needham, Rodney. Structure and Sentiment. U of Chicago Press. Chicago.1962
__________ (trans.). “Introduction,” to Durkheim and Mauss, Primitive Classification,
    U of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1963
Radcliffe- Brown, A. R. Andaman Islanders. Free Press. New York. 1964
__________. Structure and Function in Primitive Society. Free Press. New York. 1965
__________ and Forde, Daryll. African Systems of Kinship and Marriage. Routledge & Kegan
    Paul. London.1987
Srinivas, M. N., Religion & Society among the Coorgs of South India. Oxford. New York. 2003
T’ien, Ju-K’ang. The Chinese of Sarawak. LSE/Athlone. London. 1953
Turner, Victor W. The Forest of Symbols. Cornell U Press. Ithaca.
__________. Schism and Continuity in an African Society.
Warner, W. Lloyd. Black Civilization. Peter Smith Publisher, Inc. 1969
__________. The Living and the Dead. (Yankee City Series, vol.5). Yale U Press.
    New Haven. 1959
Wilson, Monica. Good Company. Waveland. Prospect Heights, IL. 1987
Yang, Martin C. Chinese Village. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London. 2001


V. KEY JOURNALS

Africa
American Anthropologist
Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde
Current Anthropology
Ethnology
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute [formerly: Man]
Oceania